Essay on menopause
Menopause is a natural process, which occurs in all women at different ages, marking the end of the reproductive stage. Thus, a woman cannot conceive or give birth after menopause. In most women, menopause occurs between 45 and 55 years. However, few cases of menopause are reported before or after this age bracket. A woman is said to have reached menopause if she does not receive her monthly periods for 12 months consecutively. Menopause is caused by changes in the levels of estrogen and progesterone in the ovaries. The production of progesterone and estrogen hormones in menopause stops during menopause, leading to several symptoms, including vaginal dryness and hot flashness (Bansal & Aggarwal, 2019). Menopause may cause changes in bone, body shape, and composition, heart health, or physical function. Additionally, postmenopausal women are at a high risk of developing heart disease and osteoporosis.
Testicular cancer is common in younger men. Upon examination, you discover a hard nodule of the right testes. What are the oncogenic influences associated with testicular cancer?
Testicular cancer is associated with genes and cryptorchidism. Men whose one or both testicles failed to move from the abdomen into the scrotum before birth is at a high risk of developing testicular cancer than the general population. Furthermore, the development of testicular cancer significantly relies on genes. Men with testicular cancer history in their family are at a high risk of developing this condition (Das et al., 2019). According to De Toni et al. (2019), the risk of developing testicular cancer is 8 to 10 times high in a man with a bother who was diagnosed with testicular cancer than in the general male population. Additionally, the risk of testicular cancer is 4 to 6 times in a man with a father with a history of this cancer form (De Toni et al., 2019).
Bansal, R., & Aggarwal, N. (2019). Menopausal hot flashes: a concise review. Journal of mid-life health, 10(1), 6. Doi: 10.4103/jmh.JMH_7_19
Das, M. K., Kleppa, L., & Haugen, T. B. (2019). Functions of genes related to testicular germ cell tumor development. Andrology, 7(4), 527-535. https://doi.org/10.1111/andr.12663
De Toni, L., Šabovic, I., Cosci, I., Ghezzi, M., Foresta, C., & Garolla, A. (2019). Testicular cancer: Genes, environment, hormones. Frontiers in endocrinology, 10, 408. Doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00408
1. Menopause comes at different ages for women. What are the changes causing menopause and what are the changes experienced after menopause?
2. Testicular cancer is common in younger men. Upon examination, you discover a hard nodule of the right testes. What are the oncogenic influences associated with testicular cancer?